Валиева М.Р. Кухонная утварь (на материале диалектов). Словарь. – Уфа, 2023. – 280 с. Страница 7.

7 FOREWORD Original utensils and various vessels used for cooking, eating and storing food from time immemorial are a special indicator of the material culture of peoples. Traditionally, craftsmen made dishes from the most accessible natural materials: wood, birch bark, twigs, clay, sand, metal, stones (jasper, jade, silicon, onyx, rock crystal, etc.), animal bones and skin. For example, ортуҫтаҡ – миска из нароста дерева – wood tureen made from a burl или туҙаяҡ I – берестяной короб (для закваски зерна бузы) – birch bark box (for starter grain for booze (light intoxicating drink made from millet, buckwheat, barley)). In the era of universal globalization, modern types of dishes are being produced, thus, original vessels and containers are being replaced, the technology of commercial and handicraft production of traditional household utensils is leaving. Factory products come into our everyday life with other names, and the names of ancient types of dishes made of leather, birch bark, and wood are preserved only in written sources. It should be noted that the most ancient Bashkir traditional vessels were made from the skin of livestock. For each specific vessel, special parts of the skin or internal organs of animals were selected. For example, a vessel for koumiss ямдау was made from the stomach of an animal, and боткүнәк I was made from the skin of the hind leg of a horse or cow. The wide distribution of leather, birch bark and wooden household utensils is evidenced by a rich terminology that differs in individual districts and regions. These names not only mean any household item, they also kept a sacred and symbolic meaning associated with rituals, signs, and beliefs of the people. For example, for the Bashkirs (but also for many nomadic peoples), ҡаҙан ‘cauldron’ symbolized the unity of all family members, “it occupied the central part of the Bashkir yurt, was a symbol of prosperity in the house and the immortality of the family” [СБМ. Хисамитдинова, 2011, с. 235]. The grandiose modern changes in the economy, the restructuring of everyday life have almost completely replaced original utensils and dishes from the everyday life of the Bashkirs. At the moment, the linguistic aspect of this topic has been little studied, and in connection with this, it became necessary to generalize and systematize the existing material. Thus, the dictionary includes various names of kitchen and table utensils for cooking and serving food, various names of vessels, travel bags, bags, nets, leather, bast and birch bark baskets, food storage boxes.